James Orchard Halliwell (1820-1889) came to collecting while still a student at Trinity College Cambridge, where he was making a name for himself as a mathematician. His love of antiquarian books and book collecting soon led him to turn his interests to the study of early English literature and particularly the works of Shakespeare and the English renaissance. Elected a fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 18, he became an acknowledged expert on the life and times of Shakespeare.
Halliwell-Phillipps (he added the Phillipps to his name after he married the daughter of the antiquarian Sir Thomas Phillipps) collected widely, recognizing the importance of ephemera to his own work. In his Catalogue of chap-books, garlands, and popular histories he wrote: ‘A student who is anxious to obtain that extensive knowledge of the habits, customs and phraseology of our ancestors, ... will do well to turn his attention to the ancient literature of the cottage, and make himself acquainted with the tales that were familiar ‘household words’ to the groundlings of the Globe or the Blackfriars Theatre’.
The reason for his generous gift remains unclear. Possibly Halliwell-Phillipps gave this collection to the Library because his own collecting interest had became more focused. Most of the broadsides are later than the Shakespearean period, and reflect English social history from the time of the Civil War (1642-1649) through to Queen Anne, with a substantial collection of later broadside ballads,and other more ephemeral items.